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Reading Intervention Teacher
What is Dyslexia?
(From the Dyslexia Handbook, 2014)
The student who struggles with reading and spelling often puzzles teachers and parents. The student displays average ability to learn in the absence of print and receives the same classroom instruction that benefits most children; however, the student continues to struggle with some or all of the many facets of reading and spelling. The student may be a student with dyslexia.
The Texas Education Code (TEC) 38.003 defines dyslexia in the following way:
Dyslexia means a disorder of constitutional origin manifested by a difficulty in learning to read, write or spell despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence and sociocultural opportunity.
Related disorders include disorders similar to or related to dyslexia such as developmental auditory imperception, dysphasia, specific developmental dyslexia, developmental dysgraphia and developmental spelling disability.
The current definition from The International Dyslexia Association states the following:
"Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge." (Adopted by the International Dyslexia Assocoation Board of Directors, Nov. 12, 2002).
Students identified as having dyslexia typically experience primary difficulties in phonological awareness, including phonemic awareness and manipulation, single word reading, reading fluency and spelling. Consequences may include difficulties in reading comprehension and/or written expression. These difficulties in phonological awareness are unexpected for the student's age and educational level and are not primarily the result of language difference factors. Additionally, there is often a family history of similar difficulties.
The following are the primary reading/spelling characteristics of dyslexia:
Difficulty reading real words in isolation
Difficulty accurately decoding unfamiliar words
Difficulty with oral reading (slow, inaccurate, or labored)
Difficulty with spelling
The reading/spelling characteristics are most often associated with the following:
Segmenting, blending, and manipulating sounds in words (phonemic awareness)
Learning the names of letters and their associated sounds
Holding information about sounds and words in memory (phonological memory)
Rapidly recalling the names of familiar objects, colors, or letters of the alphabet (rapid namimg)
Secondary consequences of dyslexia may include the following:
Variable difficulty with aspects of reading comprehension
Variable difficulty with aspects of written composition
Limited vocabulary growth due to reduced reading experiences
Websites for Parents:
Excellent resource for parents of struggling readers.
Non-profit organization dedicated to helping individuals with dyslexia
Articles, activities, resources designed to help children learn how to read.
Websites for students:
learningally.org Audio books program
Words of Praise for Your Students
I'm proud of you
Kiss your brain
How did you know that?
You tried hard
What a good listener
Hurrah for you
Keep up the great work
Way to go
You are so smart
Hip Hip Hooray
You can do it
You made my day